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2007


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Deterministic Annealing for Multiple-Instance Learning

Gehler, P., Chapelle, O.

In Artificial Intelligence and Statistics (AIStats), 2007 (inproceedings)

pdf [BibTex]

2007

pdf [BibTex]


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Point-and-click cursor control by a person with tetraplegia using an intracortical neural interface system

Kim, S., Simeral, J. D., Hochberg, L. R., Friehs, G., Donoghue, J. P., Black, M. J.

Program No. 517.2. 2007 Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner, Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, 2007, Online (conference)

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Assistive technology and robotic control using MI ensemble-based neural interface systems in humans with tetraplegia

Donoghue, J. P., Nurmikko, A., Black, M. J., Hochberg, L.

Journal of Physiology, Special Issue on Brain Computer Interfaces, 579, pages: 603-611, 2007 (article)

Abstract
This review describes the rationale, early stage development, and initial human application of neural interface systems (NISs) for humans with paralysis. NISs are emerging medical devices designed to allowpersonswith paralysis to operate assistive technologies or to reanimatemuscles based upon a command signal that is obtained directly fromthe brain. Such systems require the development of sensors to detect brain signals, decoders to transformneural activity signals into a useful command, and an interface for the user.We review initial pilot trial results of an NIS that is based on an intracortical microelectrode sensor that derives control signals from the motor cortex.We review recent findings showing, first, that neurons engaged by movement intentions persist in motor cortex years after injury or disease to the motor system, and second, that signals derived from motor cortex can be used by persons with paralysis to operate a range of devices. We suggest that, with further development, this form of NIS holds promise as a useful new neurotechnology for those with limited motor function or communication.We also discuss the additional potential for neural sensors to be used in the diagnosis and management of various neurological conditions and as a new way to learn about human brain function.

pdf preprint pdf from publisher DOI [BibTex]

pdf preprint pdf from publisher DOI [BibTex]


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Probabilistically modeling and decoding neural population activity in motor cortex

Black, M. J., Donoghue, J. P.

In Toward Brain-Computer Interfacing, pages: 147-159, (Editors: Dornhege, G. and del R. Millan, J. and Hinterberger, T. and McFarland, D. and Muller, K.-R.), MIT Press, London, 2007 (incollection)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


Thumb xl screen shot 2012 02 23 at 1.59.51 pm
Learning Appearances with Low-Rank SVM

Wolf, L., Jhuang, H., Hazan, T.

In Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2007 (inproceedings)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


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Neural correlates of grip aperture in primary motor cortex

Vargas-Irwin, C., Shakhnarovich, G., Artemiadis, P., Donoghue, J. P., Black, M. J.

Program No. 517.10. 2007 Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner, Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, 2007, Online (conference)

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Directional tuning in motor cortex of a person with ALS

Simeral, J. D., Donoghue, J. P., Black, M. J., Friehs, G. M., Brown, R. H., Krivickas, L. S., Hochberg, L. R.

Program No. 517.4. 2007 Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner, Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, 2007, Online (conference)

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Denoising archival films using a learned Bayesian model

Moldovan, T. M., Roth, S., Black, M. J.

(CS-07-03), Brown University, Department of Computer Science, 2007 (techreport)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


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Steerable random fields

(Best Paper Award, INI-Graphics Net, 2008)

Roth, S., Black, M. J.

In Int. Conf. on Computer Vision, ICCV, pages: 1-8, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2007 (inproceedings)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


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Toward standardized assessment of pointing devices for brain-computer interfaces

Donoghue, J., Simeral, J., Kim, S., G.M. Friehs, L. H., Black, M.

Program No. 517.16. 2007 Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner, Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, 2007, Online (conference)

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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A Biologically Inspired System for Action Recognition

Jhuang, H., Serre, T., Wolf, L., Poggio, T.

In International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2007 (inproceedings)

code pdf [BibTex]

code pdf [BibTex]


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AREADNE Research in Encoding And Decoding of Neural Ensembles

Shakhnarovich, G., Hochberg, L. R., Donoghue, J. P., Stein, J., Brown, R. H., Krivickas, L. S., Friehs, G. M., Black, M. J.

Program No. 517.8. 2007 Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner, Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, 2007, Online (conference)

[BibTex]

[BibTex]

2002


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Inferring hand motion from multi-cell recordings in motor cortex using a Kalman filter

Wu, W., Black, M. J., Gao, Y., Bienenstock, E., Serruya, M., Donoghue, J. P.

In SAB’02-Workshop on Motor Control in Humans and Robots: On the Interplay of Real Brains and Artificial Devices, pages: 66-73, Edinburgh, Scotland (UK), August 2002 (inproceedings)

pdf [BibTex]

2002

pdf [BibTex]


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Bayesian Inference of Visual Motion Boundaries

Fleet, D. J., Black, M. J., Nestares, O.

In Exploring Artificial Intelligence in the New Millennium, pages: 139-174, (Editors: Lakemeyer, G. and Nebel, B.), Morgan Kaufmann Pub., July 2002 (incollection)

Abstract
This chapter addresses an open problem in visual motion analysis, the estimation of image motion in the vicinity of occlusion boundaries. With a Bayesian formulation, local image motion is explained in terms of multiple, competing, nonlinear models, including models for smooth (translational) motion and for motion boundaries. The generative model for motion boundaries explicitly encodes the orientation of the boundary, the velocities on either side, the motion of the occluding edge over time, and the appearance/disappearance of pixels at the boundary. We formulate the posterior probability distribution over the models and model parameters, conditioned on the image sequence. Approximate inference is achieved with a combination of tools: A Bayesian filter provides for online computation; factored sampling allows us to represent multimodal non-Gaussian distributions and to propagate beliefs with nonlinear dynamics from one time to the next; and mixture models are used to simplify the computation of joint prediction distributions in the Bayesian filter. To efficiently represent such a high-dimensional space, we also initialize samples using the responses of a low-level motion-discontinuity detector. The basic formulation and computational model provide a general probabilistic framework for motion estimation with multiple, nonlinear models.

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


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Inferring hand motion from multi-cell recordings in motor cortex using a Kalman filter

Wu, W., Black M., Gao, Y., Bienenstock, E., Serruya, M., Donoghue, J.

Program No. 357.5. 2002 Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner, Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC, 2002, Online (conference)

abstract [BibTex]

abstract [BibTex]


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Automatic detection and tracking of human motion with a view-based representation

Fablet, R., Black, M. J.

In European Conf. on Computer Vision, ECCV 2002, 1, pages: 476-491, LNCS 2353, (Editors: A. Heyden and G. Sparr and M. Nielsen and P. Johansen), Springer-Verlag , 2002 (inproceedings)

Abstract
This paper proposes a solution for the automatic detection and tracking of human motion in image sequences. Due to the complexity of the human body and its motion, automatic detection of 3D human motion remains an open, and important, problem. Existing approaches for automatic detection and tracking focus on 2D cues and typically exploit object appearance (color distribution, shape) or knowledge of a static background. In contrast, we exploit 2D optical flow information which provides rich descriptive cues, while being independent of object and background appearance. To represent the optical flow patterns of people from arbitrary viewpoints, we develop a novel representation of human motion using low-dimensional spatio-temporal models that are learned using motion capture data of human subjects. In addition to human motion (the foreground) we probabilistically model the motion of generic scenes (the background); these statistical models are defined as Gibbsian fields specified from the first-order derivatives of motion observations. Detection and tracking are posed in a principled Bayesian framework which involves the computation of a posterior probability distribution over the model parameters (i.e., the location and the type of the human motion) given a sequence of optical flow observations. Particle filtering is used to represent and predict this non-Gaussian posterior distribution over time. The model parameters of samples from this distribution are related to the pose parameters of a 3D articulated model (e.g. the approximate joint angles and movement direction). Thus the approach proves suitable for initializing more complex probabilistic models of human motion. As shown by experiments on real image sequences, our method is able to detect and track people under different viewpoints with complex backgrounds.

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


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A layered motion representation with occlusion and compact spatial support

Fleet, D. J., Jepson, A., Black, M. J.

In European Conf. on Computer Vision, ECCV 2002, 1, pages: 692-706, LNCS 2353, (Editors: A. Heyden and G. Sparr and M. Nielsen and P. Johansen), Springer-Verlag , 2002 (inproceedings)

Abstract
We describe a 2.5D layered representation for visual motion analysis. The representation provides a global interpretation of image motion in terms of several spatially localized foreground regions along with a background region. Each of these regions comprises a parametric shape model and a parametric motion model. The representation also contains depth ordering so visibility and occlusion are rightly included in the estimation of the model parameters. Finally, because the number of objects, their positions, shapes and sizes, and their relative depths are all unknown, initial models are drawn from a proposal distribution, and then compared using a penalized likelihood criterion. This allows us to automatically initialize new models, and to compare different depth orderings.

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


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Implicit probabilistic models of human motion for synthesis and tracking

Sidenbladh, H., Black, M. J., Sigal, L.

In European Conf. on Computer Vision, 1, pages: 784-800, 2002 (inproceedings)

Abstract
This paper addresses the problem of probabilistically modeling 3D human motion for synthesis and tracking. Given the high dimensional nature of human motion, learning an explicit probabilistic model from available training data is currently impractical. Instead we exploit methods from texture synthesis that treat images as representing an implicit empirical distribution. These methods replace the problem of representing the probability of a texture pattern with that of searching the training data for similar instances of that pattern. We extend this idea to temporal data representing 3D human motion with a large database of example motions. To make the method useful in practice, we must address the problem of efficient search in a large training set; efficiency is particularly important for tracking. Towards that end, we learn a low dimensional linear model of human motion that is used to structure the example motion database into a binary tree. An approximate probabilistic tree search method exploits the coefficients of this low-dimensional representation and runs in sub-linear time. This probabilistic tree search returns a particular sample human motion with probability approximating the true distribution of human motions in the database. This sampling method is suitable for use with particle filtering techniques and is applied to articulated 3D tracking of humans within a Bayesian framework. Successful tracking results are presented, along with examples of synthesizing human motion using the model.

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


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Robust parameterized component analysis: Theory and applications to 2D facial modeling

De la Torre, F., Black, M. J.

In European Conf. on Computer Vision, ECCV 2002, 4, pages: 653-669, LNCS 2353, Springer-Verlag, 2002 (inproceedings)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


Thumb xl bildschirmfoto 2013 01 15 um 10.03.10
Probabilistic inference of hand motion from neural activity in motor cortex

Gao, Y., Black, M. J., Bienenstock, E., Shoham, S., Donoghue, J.

In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 14, pages: 221-228, MIT Press, 2002 (inproceedings)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]