Since the release of the Kinect, RGB-D cameras have been used in several consumer devices, including smartphones. In this talk, I will present two challenging uses of this technology. With multiple RGB-D cameras, it is possible to reconstruct a 3D scene and visualize it from any point of view. In the first part of the talk, I will show how such a scene can be streamed and rendered as a point cloud in a compelling way and its appearance improved by the use of external cinema cameras. In the second part of the talk, I will present my work on how an RGB-D camera can be used for enabling real-walking in virtual reality by making the user aware of the surrounding obstacles. I present a pipeline to create an occupancy map from a point cloud on the fly on a mobile phone used as a virtual reality headset. This occupancy map can then be used to prevent the user from hitting physical obstacles when walking in the virtual scene.
Organizers: Sergi Pujades
Matching between two sets arises in various areas in computer vision, such as feature point matching for 3D reconstruction, person re-identification for surveillance or data association for multi-target tracking. Most previous work focused either on designing suitable features and matching cost functions, or on developing faster and more accurate solvers for quadratic or higher-order problems. In the first part of my talk, I will present a strategy for improving state-of-the-art solutions by efficiently computing the marginals of the joint matching probability. The second part of my talk will revolve around our recent work on online multi-target tracking using recurrent neural networks (RNNs). I will mention some fundamental challenges we encountered and present our current solution.
The accurate reconstruction of facial shape is important for applications such as telepresence and gaming. It can be solved efficiently with the help of statistical shape models that constrain the shape of the reconstruction. In this talk, several methods to statistically analyze static and dynamic 3D face data are discussed. When statistically analyzing faces, various challenges arise from noisy, corrupt, or incomplete data. To overcome the limitations imposed by the poor data quality, we leverage redundancy in the data for shape processing. This is done by processing entire motion sequences in the case of dynamic data, and by jointly processing large databases in a groupwise fashion in the case of static data. First, a fully automatic approach to robustly register and statistically analyze facial motion sequences using a multilinear face model as statistical prior is proposed. Further, a statistical face model is discussed, which consists of many localized, decorrelated multilinear models. The localized and multi-scale nature of this model allows for recovery of fine-scale details while retaining robustness to severe noise and occlusions. Finally, the learning of statistical face models is formulated as a groupwise optimization framework that aims to learn a multilinear model while jointly optimizing the correspondence, or correcting the data.
In this talk we present some recent results on human action recognition in videos. We, first, show how to use human pose for action recognition. To this end we propose a new pose-based convolutional neural network descriptor for action recognition, which aggregates motion and appearance information along tracks of human body parts. Next, we present an approach for spatio-temporal action localization in realistic videos. The approach first detects proposals at the frame-level and then tracks high-scoring proposals in the video. Our tracker relies simultaneously on instance-level and class-level detectors. Action are localized in time with a sliding window approach at the track level. Finally, we show how to extend this method to weakly supervised learning of actions, which allows to scale to large amounts of data without manual annotation.
Typical human actions such as hand-shaking and drinking last several seconds and exhibit characteristic spatio-temporal structure. Recent methods attempt to capture this structure and learn action representations with convolutional neural networks. Such representations, however, are typically learned at the level of single frames or short video clips and fail to model actions at their full temporal scale. In this work we learn video representations using neural networks with long-term temporal convolutions. We demonstrate that CNN models with increased temporal extents improve the accuracy of action recognition despite reduced spatial resolution. We also study the impact of different low-level representations, such as raw values of video pixels and optical flow vector fields and demonstrate the importance of high-quality optical flow estimation for learning accurate action models. We report state-of-the-art results on two challenging benchmarks for human action recognition UCF101 and HMDB51.
Proper handling of occlusions is a big challenge for model based reconstruction, e.g. for multi-view motion capture a major difficulty is the handling of occluding body parts. We propose a smooth volumetric scene representation, which implicitly converts occlusion into a smooth and differentiable phenomena (ICCV2015). Our ray tracing image formation model helps to express the objective in a single closed-form expression. This is in contrast to existing surface(mesh) representations, where occlusion is a local effect, causes non-differentiability, and is difficult to optimize. We demonstrate improvements for multi-view scene reconstruction, rigid object tracking, and motion capture. Moreover, I will show an application of motion tracking to the interactive control of virtual characters (SigAsia2015).
The core focus of my research is on robot perception. Within this broad categorization, I am mainly interested in understanding how teams of robots and sensors can cooperate and/or collaborate to improve the perception of themselves (self-localization) as well as their surroundings (target tracking, mapping, etc.). In this talk I will describe the inter-dependencies of such perception modules and present state-of-the-art methods to perform unified cooperative state estimation. The trade-off between accuracy of estimation and computational speed will be highlighted through a new optimization-based method for unified-state estimation. Furthermore, I will also describe how perception-based multirobot formation control can be achieved. Towards the end, I will present some recent results on cooperative vision-based target tracking and a few comments on our ongoing work regarding cooperative aerial mapping with human-in-the-loop.
Modeling and reconstruction of shape and motion are problems of fundamental importance in computer vision. Inverse Problem theory constitutes a powerful mathematical framework for dealing with ill-posed problems as the ones typically arising in shape and motion modeling. In this talk, I will present methods inspired by Inverse Problem theory, for dealing with four different shape and motion modeling problems. In particular, in the context of shape modeling, I will present a method for component-wise modeling of articulated objects and its application in computing 3D models of animals. Additionally, I will discuss the problem of modeling of specular surfaces via the properties of their material, and I will also present a model for confidence driven depth image fusion based on total variation regularization. Regarding motion, I will discuss a method for the recognition of human actions from motion capture data based on Nonparametric Bayesian models.
Inverse problems are ubiquitous in image processing and applied science in general. Such problems describe the challenge of computing the parameters that characterize a system from the outcomes. While this might seem easy at first for simple systems, many inverse problems share a property that makes them much more intricate: they are ill-posed. This means that either the problem does not have a unique solution or this solution does not depend continuously on the outcomes of the system. Bayesian statistics provides a framework that allows to treat such problems in a systematic way. The missing piece of information is encoded as a prior distribution on the space of possible solutions. In this talk, we will study probabilistic image models as priors for statistical inversion. In particular, we will give a probabilistic interpretation of the classical TV-prior and discuss how this interpretation can be used as a starting point for more complex models. We will see that many important auxiliary quantities such as edges and regions can be incorporated into the model in the form of latent variables. This leads to the conjecture that many image processing tasks, such as denoising and segmentation, should not be considered separately, but instead be treated together.
In general Helga Griffiths is a Multi-Sense-Artist working on the intersection of science and art. She has been working for over 20 years on the integration of various sensory stimuli into her “multi-sense” installations. Typical for her work is to produce a sensory experience to transcend conventional boundaries of perception.
Organizers: Emma-Jayne Holderness
I will describe a series of work that aims to automatically understand images of animals and plants. I will begin by describing recent work that uses Bounded Distortion matching to model pose variation in animals. Using a generic 3D model of an animal and multiple images of different individuals in various poses, we construct a model that captures the way in which the animal articulates. This is done by solving for the pose of the template that matches each image while simultaneously solving for the stiffness of each tetrahedron of the model. We minimize an L1 norm on stiffness, producing a model that bends easily at joints, but that captures the rigidity of other parts of the animal. We show that this model can determine the pose of animals such as cats in a wide range of positions. Bounded distortion forms a core part of the matching between 3D model and 2D images. I will also show that Bounded Distortion can be used for 2D matching. We use it to find corresponding features in images very robustly, optimizing an L0 distance to maximize the number of matched features, while bounding the amount of non-rigid variation between the images. We demonstrate the use of this approach in matching non-rigid objects and in wide-baseline matching of features. I will also give an overview of a method for identifying the parts of animals in images, to produce an automatic correspondence between images of animals. Building on these correspondences we develop methods for recognizing the species of a bird, or the breed of a dog. We use these recognition algorithms to construct electronic field guides. I will describe three field guides that we have published, Birdsnap, Dogsnap, and Leafsnap. Leafsnap identifies the species of trees using shape-based matching to compare images of leaves. Leafsnap has been downloaded by over 1.5 million users, and has been used in schools and in biodiversity studies. This work has been done in collaboration with many University of Maryland students and with groups at Columbia University, the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History, and the Weizmann Institute.
Organizers: Stephan Streuber