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2007


Thumb xl floweval
A Database and Evaluation Methodology for Optical Flow

Baker, S., Scharstein, D., Lewis, J.P., Roth, S., Black, M.J., Szeliski, R.

In Int. Conf. on Computer Vision, ICCV, pages: 1-8, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, October 2007 (inproceedings)

pdf [BibTex]

2007

pdf [BibTex]


Thumb xl iccv07b
Shining a light on human pose: On shadows, shading and the estimation of pose and shape,

Balan, A., Black, M. J., Haussecker, H., Sigal, L.

In Int. Conf. on Computer Vision, ICCV, pages: 1-8, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, October 2007 (inproceedings)

pdf YouTube [BibTex]

pdf YouTube [BibTex]


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Ensemble spiking activity as a source of cortical control signals in individuals with tetraplegia

Simeral, J. D., Kim, S. P., Black, M. J., Donoghue, J. P., Hochberg, L. R.

Biomedical Engineering Society, BMES, september 2007 (conference)

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


Thumb xl cvpr07scape
Detailed human shape and pose from images

Balan, A., Sigal, L., Black, M. J., Davis, J., Haussecker, H.

In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, CVPR, pages: 1-8, Minneapolis, June 2007 (inproceedings)

pdf YouTube [BibTex]

pdf YouTube [BibTex]


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Learning static Gestalt laws through dynamic experience

Ostrovsky, Y., Wulff, J., Sinha, P.

Journal of Vision, 7(9):315-315, ARVO, June 2007 (article)

Abstract
The Gestalt laws (Wertheimer 1923) are widely regarded as the rules that help us parse the world into objects. However, it is unclear as to how these laws are acquired by an infant's visual system. Classically, these “laws” have been presumed to be innate (Kellman and Spelke 1983). But, more recent work in infant development, showing the protracted time-course over which these grouping principles emerge (e.g., Johnson and Aslin 1995; Craton 1996), suggests that visual experience might play a role in their genesis. Specifically, our studies of patients with late-onset vision (Project Prakash; VSS 2006) and evidence from infant development both point to an early role of common motion cues for object grouping. Here we explore the possibility that the privileged status of motion in the developmental timeline is not happenstance, but rather serves to bootstrap the learning of static Gestalt cues. Our approach involves computational analyses of real-world motion sequences to investigate whether primitive optic flow information is correlated with static figural cues that could eventually come to serve as proxies for grouping in the form of Gestalt principles. We calculated local optic flow maps and then examined how similarity of motion across image patches co-varied with similarity of certain figural properties in static frames. Results indicate that patches with similar motion are much more likely to have similar luminance, color, and orientation as compared to patches with dissimilar motion vectors. This regularity suggests that, in principle, common motion extracted from dynamic visual experience can provide enough information to bootstrap region grouping based on luminance and color and contour continuation mechanisms in static scenes. These observations, coupled with the cited experimental studies, lend credence to the hypothesis that static Gestalt laws might be learned through a bootstrapping process based on early dynamic experience.

link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


Thumb xl aperture
Decoding grasp aperture from motor-cortical population activity

Artemiadis, P., Shakhnarovich, G., Vargas-Irwin, C., Donoghue, J. P., Black, M. J.

In The 3rd International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, pages: 518-521, May 2007 (inproceedings)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


Thumb xl ner07
Multi-state decoding of point-and-click control signals from motor cortical activity in a human with tetraplegia

Kim, S., Simeral, J., Hochberg, L., Donoghue, J. P., Friehs, G., Black, M. J.

In The 3rd International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, pages: 486-489, May 2007 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Basic neural-prosthetic control of a computer cursor has been recently demonstrated by Hochberg et al. [1] using the BrainGate system (Cyberkinetics Neurotechnology Systems, Inc.). While these results demonstrate the feasibility of intracortically-driven prostheses for humans with paralysis, a practical cursor-based computer interface requires more precise cursor control and the ability to “click” on areas of interest. Here we present a practical point and click device that decodes both continuous states (e.g. cursor kinematics) and discrete states (e.g. click state) from single neural population in human motor cortex. We describe a probabilistic multi-state decoder and the necessary training paradigms that enable point and click cursor control by a human with tetraplegia using an implanted microelectrode array. We present results from multiple recording sessions and quantify the point and click performance.

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


Thumb xl pedestal
Neuromotor prosthesis development

Donoghue, J., Hochberg, L., Nurmikko, A., Black, M., Simeral, J., Friehs, G.

Medicine & Health Rhode Island, 90(1):12-15, January 2007 (article)

Abstract
Article describes a neuromotor prosthesis (NMP), in development at Brown University, that records human brain signals, decodes them, and transforms them into movement commands. An NMP is described as a system consisting of a neural interface, a decoding system, and a user interface, also called an effector; a closed-loop system would be completed by a feedback signal from the effector to the brain. The interface is based on neural spiking, a source of information-rich, rapid, complex control signals from the nervous system. The NMP described, named BrainGate, consists of a match-head sized platform with 100 thread-thin electrodes implanted just into the surface of the motor cortex where commands to move the hand emanate. Neural signals are decoded by a rack of computers that displays the resultant output as the motion of a cursor on a computer monitor. While computer cursor motion represents a form of virtual device control, this same command signal could be routed to a device to command motion of paralyzed muscles or the actions of prosthetic limbs. The researchers’ overall goal is the development of a fully implantable, wireless multi-neuron sensor for broad research, neural prosthetic, and human neurodiagnostic applications.

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


Thumb xl ijcvflow2
On the spatial statistics of optical flow

Roth, S., Black, M. J.

International Journal of Computer Vision, 74(1):33-50, 2007 (article)

Abstract
We present an analysis of the spatial and temporal statistics of "natural" optical flow fields and a novel flow algorithm that exploits their spatial statistics. Training flow fields are constructed using range images of natural scenes and 3D camera motions recovered from hand-held and car-mounted video sequences. A detailed analysis of optical flow statistics in natural scenes is presented and machine learning methods are developed to learn a Markov random field model of optical flow. The prior probability of a flow field is formulated as a Field-of-Experts model that captures the spatial statistics in overlapping patches and is trained using contrastive divergence. This new optical flow prior is compared with previous robust priors and is incorporated into a recent, accurate algorithm for dense optical flow computation. Experiments with natural and synthetic sequences illustrate how the learned optical flow prior quantitatively improves flow accuracy and how it captures the rich spatial structure found in natural scene motion.

pdf preprint pdf from publisher [BibTex]

pdf preprint pdf from publisher [BibTex]


Thumb xl screen shot 2012 06 06 at 11.20.23 am
Deterministic Annealing for Multiple-Instance Learning

Gehler, P., Chapelle, O.

In Artificial Intelligence and Statistics (AIStats), 2007 (inproceedings)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


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Point-and-click cursor control by a person with tetraplegia using an intracortical neural interface system

Kim, S., Simeral, J. D., Hochberg, L. R., Friehs, G., Donoghue, J. P., Black, M. J.

Program No. 517.2. 2007 Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner, Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, 2007, Online (conference)

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


Thumb xl arrayhd
Assistive technology and robotic control using MI ensemble-based neural interface systems in humans with tetraplegia

Donoghue, J. P., Nurmikko, A., Black, M. J., Hochberg, L.

Journal of Physiology, Special Issue on Brain Computer Interfaces, 579, pages: 603-611, 2007 (article)

Abstract
This review describes the rationale, early stage development, and initial human application of neural interface systems (NISs) for humans with paralysis. NISs are emerging medical devices designed to allowpersonswith paralysis to operate assistive technologies or to reanimatemuscles based upon a command signal that is obtained directly fromthe brain. Such systems require the development of sensors to detect brain signals, decoders to transformneural activity signals into a useful command, and an interface for the user.We review initial pilot trial results of an NIS that is based on an intracortical microelectrode sensor that derives control signals from the motor cortex.We review recent findings showing, first, that neurons engaged by movement intentions persist in motor cortex years after injury or disease to the motor system, and second, that signals derived from motor cortex can be used by persons with paralysis to operate a range of devices. We suggest that, with further development, this form of NIS holds promise as a useful new neurotechnology for those with limited motor function or communication.We also discuss the additional potential for neural sensors to be used in the diagnosis and management of various neurological conditions and as a new way to learn about human brain function.

pdf preprint pdf from publisher DOI [BibTex]

pdf preprint pdf from publisher DOI [BibTex]


Thumb xl implant
Probabilistically modeling and decoding neural population activity in motor cortex

Black, M. J., Donoghue, J. P.

In Toward Brain-Computer Interfacing, pages: 147-159, (Editors: Dornhege, G. and del R. Millan, J. and Hinterberger, T. and McFarland, D. and Muller, K.-R.), MIT Press, London, 2007 (incollection)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


Thumb xl screen shot 2012 02 23 at 1.59.51 pm
Learning Appearances with Low-Rank SVM

Wolf, L., Jhuang, H., Hazan, T.

In Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2007 (inproceedings)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


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Neural correlates of grip aperture in primary motor cortex

Vargas-Irwin, C., Shakhnarovich, G., Artemiadis, P., Donoghue, J. P., Black, M. J.

Program No. 517.10. 2007 Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner, Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, 2007, Online (conference)

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Directional tuning in motor cortex of a person with ALS

Simeral, J. D., Donoghue, J. P., Black, M. J., Friehs, G. M., Brown, R. H., Krivickas, L. S., Hochberg, L. R.

Program No. 517.4. 2007 Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner, Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, 2007, Online (conference)

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


Thumb xl mabuse
Denoising archival films using a learned Bayesian model

Moldovan, T. M., Roth, S., Black, M. J.

(CS-07-03), Brown University, Department of Computer Science, 2007 (techreport)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


Thumb xl srf
Steerable random fields

(Best Paper Award, INI-Graphics Net, 2008)

Roth, S., Black, M. J.

In Int. Conf. on Computer Vision, ICCV, pages: 1-8, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2007 (inproceedings)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


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Toward standardized assessment of pointing devices for brain-computer interfaces

Donoghue, J., Simeral, J., Kim, S., G.M. Friehs, L. H., Black, M.

Program No. 517.16. 2007 Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner, Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, 2007, Online (conference)

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


Thumb xl alg
A Biologically Inspired System for Action Recognition

Jhuang, H., Serre, T., Wolf, L., Poggio, T.

In International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2007 (inproceedings)

code pdf [BibTex]

code pdf [BibTex]


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AREADNE Research in Encoding And Decoding of Neural Ensembles

Shakhnarovich, G., Hochberg, L. R., Donoghue, J. P., Stein, J., Brown, R. H., Krivickas, L. S., Friehs, G. M., Black, M. J.

Program No. 517.8. 2007 Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner, Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, 2007, Online (conference)

[BibTex]

[BibTex]

2005


Thumb xl ivc05
Representing cyclic human motion using functional analysis

Ormoneit, D., Black, M. J., Hastie, T., Kjellström, H.

Image and Vision Computing, 23(14):1264-1276, December 2005 (article)

Abstract
We present a robust automatic method for modeling cyclic 3D human motion such as walking using motion-capture data. The pose of the body is represented by a time-series of joint angles which are automatically segmented into a sequence of motion cycles. The mean and the principal components of these cycles are computed using a new algorithm that enforces smooth transitions between the cycles by operating in the Fourier domain. Key to this method is its ability to automatically deal with noise and missing data. A learned walking model is then exploited for Bayesian tracking of 3D human motion.

pdf pdf from publisher DOI [BibTex]

2005

pdf pdf from publisher DOI [BibTex]


Thumb xl pets 2005 copy
A quantitative evaluation of video-based 3D person tracking

Balan, A. O., Sigal, L., Black, M. J.

In The Second Joint IEEE International Workshop on Visual Surveillance and Performance Evaluation of Tracking and Surveillance, VS-PETS, pages: 349-356, October 2005 (inproceedings)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


Thumb xl embs05
Inferring attentional state and kinematics from motor cortical firing rates

Wood, F., Prabhat, , Donoghue, J. P., Black, M. J.

In Proc. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, pages: 1544-1547, September 2005 (inproceedings)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


Thumb xl arma
Motor cortical decoding using an autoregressive moving average model

Fisher, J., Black, M. J.

In Proc. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, pages: 1469-1472, September 2005 (inproceedings)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


Thumb xl cvpr2005
Fields of Experts: A framework for learning image priors

Roth, S., Black, M. J.

In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2, pages: 860-867, June 2005 (inproceedings)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


Thumb xl picture for seq 15 stabilization
A Flow-Based Approach to Vehicle Detection and Background Mosaicking in Airborne Video

Yalcin, H. C. R. B. M. J. H. M.

IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), Video Proceedings,, pages: 1202, 2005 (patent)

YouTube pdf [BibTex]

YouTube pdf [BibTex]


Thumb xl iccv05roth
On the spatial statistics of optical flow

(Marr Prize, Honorable Mention)

Roth, S., Black, M. J.

In International Conf. on Computer Vision, International Conf. on Computer Vision, pages: 42-49, 2005 (inproceedings)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


Thumb xl nips05
Modeling neural population spiking activity with Gibbs distributions

Wood, F., Roth, S., Black, M. J.

In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 18, pages: 1537-1544, 2005 (inproceedings)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


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Energy-based models of motor cortical population activity

Wood, F., Black, M.

Program No. 689.20. 2005 Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner, Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC, 2005 (conference)

abstract [BibTex]

abstract [BibTex]

1993


Thumb xl bildschirmfoto 2013 01 14 um 11.48.36
Mixture models for optical flow computation

Jepson, A., Black, M.

In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, CVPR-93, pages: 760-761, New York, NY, June 1993 (inproceedings)

pdf abstract tech report [BibTex]

1993

pdf abstract tech report [BibTex]


Thumb xl bildschirmfoto 2013 01 14 um 11.52.45
A framework for the robust estimation of optical flow

(Helmholtz Prize)

Black, M. J., Anandan, P.

In Fourth International Conf. on Computer Vision, ICCV-93, pages: 231-236, Berlin, Germany, May 1993 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Most approaches for estimating optical flow assume that, within a finite image region, only a single motion is present. This single motion assumption is violated in common situations involving transparency, depth discontinuities, independently moving objects, shadows, and specular reflections. To robustly estimate optical flow, the single motion assumption must be relaxed. This work describes a framework based on robust estimation that addresses violations of the brightness constancy and spatial smoothness assumptions caused by multiple motions. We show how the robust estimation framework can be applied to standard formulations of the optical flow problem thus reducing their sensitivity to violations of their underlying assumptions. The approach has been applied to three standard techniques for recovering optical flow: area-based regression, correlation, and regularization with motion discontinuities. This work focuses on the recovery of multiple parametric motion models within a region as well as the recovery of piecewise-smooth flow fields and provides examples with natural and synthetic image sequences.

pdf video abstract code [BibTex]

pdf video abstract code [BibTex]


Thumb xl bildschirmfoto 2013 01 15 um 11.07.28
Mixture models for optical flow computation

Jepson, A., Black, M.

In Partitioning Data Sets, DIMACS Workshop, pages: 271-286, (Editors: Ingemar Cox, Pierre Hansen, and Bela Julesz), AMS Pub, Providence, RI., April 1993 (incollection)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


Thumb xl ijcai
Action, representation, and purpose: Re-evaluating the foundations of computational vision

Black, M. J., Aloimonos, Y., Brown, C. M., Horswill, I., Malik, J., G. Sandini, , Tarr, M. J.

In International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, IJCAI-93, pages: 1661-1666, Chambery, France, 1993 (inproceedings)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]